This is the 8th in a series of postings on the five Delta-related water bills now under consideration in Sacramento. Today we focus on the perspective of another segment of the agricultural community as presented by a Westside farmer whose farm depends on water exported out of the Delta and sent south.
We aren’t providing the opinions to validate them or any one perspective, but to help you understand that there are many passionate perspectives and interests that will be impacted by the Delta bills and other state and federal actions being contemplated regarding water in California. Later today we’ll send you a post about what’s going on at the federal level…The truth about the West Side farmers Aug 24, 2009 by K. Lynn Humphreys originally published at aquafornia.com
Lately there has been a lot of purposeful use of the words “conglomerates”, “profiteers”, “big ag”, “corporate ag”, and “land barons”, when referring to farming families within The Westlands Water District. The relentless flow of these distracting terms is an obvious attempt to depersonalize farmers, and to demonize them as giant industry hogs that are grabbing resources at the expense of the environment. After all, it is easier to justify opposing someone if you don’t think of them as being like you. I would like to tell you about the real people farming in the Westlands District.
My husband is a fourth-generation farmer. He, along with his siblings, has grown up working on tomato harvesters, hoeing weeds, and laboring side by side with farm workers just as his father and siblings did on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. Over decades, the lifetime investment of multiple generations of a single family contributed to the development of the knowledge and experience necessary to manage their fields. They learned not only from their parents, grandparents and college educations, but also from being hands-on farmers and sharing information with their farming neighbors.
Their farming neighbors are the same families that were there when my husband was growing up, and when his father was growing up. The only difference now is their families, like yours, have grown. The children that wanted to become farmers purchased land alongside their parents’ farms. And then their children did the same. Land was also passed down as grandparents faded away. Ironically, “big ag”, the frightening term in the eyes of some, is actually the “family farm” those same people seek to promote.
There are also many other reasons families farm together. Probably the biggest consideration that dictates farm size is the question of what it takes to be economically worthwhile in terms of what is achieved for the amount of money spent. Equipment is but one facet of where expenses occur. A tomato harvester for example has a price tag of about $400,000. Tomatoes cannot be harvested without one. Tractors for plowing and furrowing and seeding and fertilizing also cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. A farm must generate enough product to support the equipment agriculture cannot exist without. Families farming together share equipment costs enabling them to achieve results with the minimum use of resources.
A second factor significant in determining farm size is Mother Nature’s will. A farmer’s ability to earn a living is decided by the unknowns of natural phenomena. Tomatoes can be ruined by hail storms. Freezes destroy citrus. Grasshopper infestations devour corn. Sometimes mature cotton gets rained on, and so forth. Farmers must grow enough of a crop to be profitable, fulfill contracts even when yields are low, and be diverse in crop variety to monetarily balance the ones that don’t survive nature. In order to successfully weather uncontrollable factors that threaten their fields, farming cannot exist on a small scale. It is neither feasible nor practical.
The third and most critical reality that is known to affect farm size on the west side is the fact that they must operate under different water reliability conditions than other farmers. Because water is extremely unreliable on the west side, farmers must have enough acreage to consolidate water on a few acres in order to produce a full crop on those acres. Their remaining acreage will be left without a crop. Small farms cannot afford to do this. Even though a family farmer may own several hundred acres, not all of it is always in production.
With the realization that large-scale farming on the west side is fundamentally necessary to achieve results, one also must recognize the need for water. So why are there so many farms in a region that began in the late 1920’s as a dry semi-desert? Why should we sell water to San Joaquin Valley farmers? The answer can be found in the fertile soil, but it is best answered in the climate.
Water is sold to farms in this region because, let’s face it, agriculture doesn’t thrive everywhere. The dry heat in the summer and the cool damp weather in the winter are ideal conditions for growing more than 60 food and fiber crops. There are few places in the world that have the rich soil combined with a Mediterranean climate like ours. Only Central California has been given the gift of prosperity through agriculture because of its climate; something 49 other states do not have to the extent we do. We are so fortunate to have the ability to grow half of the nation’s fruits, vegetables, and nuts right here in our valley, and the opportunity to put one in six people to work in the ripple effect of ag related jobs. Interestingly enough, almonds, artichokes, figs, olives, persimmons, pomegranates, prunes, raisins and walnuts are only grown in California. We boast the ranking of 8th largest economy in the world because of agriculture.
Because water must be shared by all people and interests in California, water diversions are necessary due to the natural geography of our state. Northern California receives the most abundant rainfall and runoff from mountain snow pack; however most of California’s population lives in Southern California, and most irrigated farmland lie in Central California. It is imperative that we have efficient water systems to convey water supplies from one region to another to serve the needs of all Californians. Otherwise our state’s nearly 34 million people would all have to live in northern California and the bay area; an area where food does not flourish.
There are some who believe that water for farmers is heavily subsidized, and therefore very inexpensive. The fact is farmers receiving water from the CVP (Central Valley Project) are required to repay their share of the federal government’s cost to build, maintain and operate the CVP. Currently, irrigators are obligated to repay the government more than $1.1 billion for the initial construction of the vast project. Farmers who comply with acreage limits required by Reclamation law are not required to pay interest on the principle debt incurred to build the project. This is the only subsidy they receive. Farmers who do not meet Reclamation law requirements are required to pay the full cost which means they pay the principle plus the interest. New CVP contracts contain significant increases in water rates that are intended to result in repayment of all CVP capital costs by 2030 which is in adherence to the law mandated to them. Farmers continue to pay these costs regardless of whether or not they are experiencing natural or man-made droughts.
There are others who believe farmers are allowed to buy water at lower rates than other water users. The fact is, water costs are not set by the type of use, but rather by many other factors primarily being the proximity to the water source. Water rates vary across the board for agriculture, urban, and industrial users. One also needs to recognize that farms receive “raw” water, whereas cities use treated water. The water that comes out of your faucet has been to a treatment plant first, and you pay extra for that service. In this case it isn’t that farmers are paying less, it is that you are paying more.
Historically, periods of naturally occurring droughts have been part of the water cycle on the west side, so learning how to adjust crops for drought years has always been a part of the yearly planning. When we have above-average rain, farmers plant more tomatoes, or similar crops that require more water. When we have below-average rain, farmers plant more drought tolerant crops such as wheat and other grains. West side farms are among the most productive and water-efficient in the world. They have collectively spent millions of dollars employing cutting edge technological innovations in their water conservation efforts, including water recycling, drip-irrigation and center-pivot irrigation. But even their best efforts and decades of experience could not prepare them for the unnatural drought that is being deliberately imposed.
With this year’s rainfall over 80% of normal, and Shasta Dam reaching 77% of average capacity, federal regulations attempting to protect Smelt in the Delta have intentionally prevented Westlands farmers from buying more than 10% of the water they rely on. Even though reputable science has shown Smelt populations did not increase when water exports were cut, and levels in the Delta remained high, farms were still were not allowed to buy more than 10% of their water. Even though Smelt are not native to the Delta and are threatened by other non-native species in the Delta, adequate water for agriculture was again denied. Even though Smelt exist by the millions from Michigan to Maine, water continued to flow to the ocean instead of to our farms. Even though Smelt cannot survive pyrethroids found in pesticides or high ammonia levels from the partially treated sewer wastewater being dumped in the Delta, yet again our farms were the target. For more than 20 years irrigation for agriculture has been restricted, yet Smelt populations have continued to dwindle.
The result is the ongoing dismantling of the economic engine of our great state at a time when our state needs the money most. The disturbing part is that many members of congress are okay with this outcome and have steadily approved the water cuts that have resulted in thousands of fallowed acres and lost jobs; jobs that extend far beyond the field workers. Environmental groups seeking to relocate human habitations outside of California, and stop humans from increasing our population numbers, are also in favor of this outcome. They believe California should be returned to the way it was a hundred years ago. Collapsing California’s economy fits perfectly into their agenda as they realize without a job you cannot afford to have children or live in this state.
Where is the common sense? Are there some among us who have found a way to sustain themselves without food? Obviously not. And that is why as long as people eat food, “big ag” will exist. We can have it here in our own backyard where we have a say in the regulation of pesticides, food inspections, and other governmental controls, or we can put it in the hands of other countries, along with all the jobs and tax revenues, and eat what they sell to us. Either way, large scale farming will always exist. It is the only way it can be done efficiently.
Westlands farmers are not the villains and they certainly are not to blame for the declining Smelt populations. They are simply 600 families on the west side of the valley that farm an average of 900 acres each. Since Westlands Water District is made up of about 600,000 acres, a few quick calculations and you will see the people buying water from Westlands are not the self-regarding monster corporations as the people trying prevent agricultural irrigation would have you believe. They are not mass “conglomerates” that are comprised of a variety of different companies and dissimilar businesses. They are not faceless big industry that is here today and gone tomorrow. Do not let those biting the hands that feed you try to lure you to their cause by convincing you they are anything other than families with farming DNA in their souls deeper than the soil under their nails. If you need more proof, come and see for yourself. Any of the families on the west side would be proud to show you their crops.
The real Westlands farmers respect their environment and treat carefully their ground so as to preserve the future of farming for the next generation, and have done so successfully for about 90 years. They possess the virtues of honesty and respect for others; generosity to charities and those in need; and sound business judgment. They nourish California’s economy as well as the bodies of the people of the world. They work in and with nature’s elements, and are now up to their dusty boot-tops trying to figure out how to continue without enough water. They drive pick up trucks, have tan faces, and wear blue jeans, plaid shirts, and straw sunhats. They are everything left that’s good about humanity. They are families, and have families, just like you.